Charging modes (IEC - 61851-1)
You can classify 4 different charging modes depending on: the level of communication between the electric vehicle and the electric system and on the control you can have over the charging process.
Connection between the vehicle and the electric system with a conventional power outlet (Schuko in most cases). There is no communication between the electric vehicle and the grid. Normally, this charging mode is aimed for small vehicle charging, such as motorcycles and electric bicycles with low power consumption (10A).
If you decide to use this charging mode, the installation must include a protection differential switch and a circuit breaker.
In this case, the connection between the car and the electric system is not carried out directly, like in mode 1. The manufacturer inserts a safety system in the charging cable, so that you can control the reliability of the connection of the electric vehicle and it allows you to determine different charging parameters.
Charging mode 2 also allows the system to reach a maximum power of 7.4 kW in single-phase and 22 kW in three-phase connection, with a limiting current of 32 A per phase.
As it occurs in mode 1, the electric installation requires a protection differential switch and a circuit breaker.
Charging mode 3 is done with a specific terminal for electric vehicles that incorporates protections in the structure itself and in the connector; which includes a series of features, such as correct connection verification, permanent check on the ground outlet, charging activation and deactivation, as well as the possibility to choose the charging power depending on the necessities of the vehicle.
The maximum power mode 3 can deliver is 7.4 kW in single-phase and 22 kW in three phase (32 A per phase).
Unlike in the other 3 cases, in this fourth mode, electric charging is done in direct current, which allows the system to withstand a power of even 50 kW (at the present time).
As you can see in charging mode 3, mode 4 also includes the necessary protections for the infrastructure.